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Table 1 Availability of energy resources and utilization [78]

From: Energy and CO2 management for chemical and related industries: issues, opportunities and challenges

Energy Availability/ Installed capacity Utilization Global energy consumption Required electricity Perspectives-Remarks
Fossil fuels
 Oil 1656 Bb 34.24Bb/year 32.9% 4.1% ?
 Coal 891.53 Bt 7.80 Bt/year 30% 39.3% Decreasing production
 Natural gas 1.87 × 105 Bcm 3538.60 Bcm/year 24% 22.9% Increasing production
All these sources release CO2
Nuclear 382.90 GW 2.44 × 106 GWh   11% Safety & hazards issue need to be resolved; potential to supply increased amounts of energy
Hydro power 1212.30 GW 3.97 × 106 GWh   16.4% Increasing growth in installed capacity
Solar energy 227.10 GW 2.53 × 105 GWh   1% Scope for improvement; current technology economically not feasible or sustainable
Wind power 431.95 GW 8.4 × 105 GWh 7% 4% Scope for improvement; high cost technology
Bio-based ?? ?? ?? ?? Availability of substantial sources, ensuring national energy security, enhancing rural employment and agricultural economy, low CO2 emissions. Issues of food versus energy, deforestation, availability of land, etc., need to be resolved.
  1. Units: Bb-Billion barrels, Bt-Billion Tons, Bcm- Billion cubic meter, GW- Giga Watt