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Table 2 List of opportunities for more sustainable process alternatives

From: Energy and CO2 management for chemical and related industries: issues, opportunities and challenges

Sustainable Fuel Sustainable Chemicals Energy efficiency Other Options
Biomass as fuel; Waste as fuel; Decarbonised methane as fuel; Low carbon electricity; Hydrogen by electrolysis – Ammonia; Hydrogen by electrolysis – Hydrogen; CCS - combustion (incl. biomass); High temperature steam electrolysis; Biomass as feedstock; Recycled plastics – syngas; Retrofit oxygen-depolarized cathodes (ODC) for chlorine production; Methanol-to-olefins; CCU, High temperature cracking; Catalytic cracking; Bioprocessing; Process Intensification, Improved waste heat recovery; More efficient equipment; Improved steam system efficiency; Combined heat and power (CHP); Integrate gas turbines with cracking furnace Improved process control; Membrane technology; Process Intensification, Solid state synthesis; Clustering; Improved insulation;