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Table 5 FTIR analysis of lipids from various microorganisms

From: Lipids detection and quantification in oleaginous microorganisms: an overview of the current state of the art

Method Microorganisms Sample preparation Compound detection and/or quantification Correlation with method Outcome Reference
Micro- FTIR Microcystis aeruginosa, Croococcus minutus, Nostoc sp., Cyclotella meneghiniana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Cell suspensions dried in the presence of ZnSe crystals for 30 min at 40 °C ± 0.5 °C; dried cells were used for spectral analysis IR absorption and molecular vibrational modes for the identification and quantification of macromolecules Detection of macromolecules during growth under different nutrient-limited condition [108]
FTIR Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus subspicatus Oven-dried cells at 40 °C for 30 min Lipids carbohydrates and proteins Effectiveness of FTIR was correlated with fluorescence spectrometer Accumulation of lipids under nitrogen limitation can be detected at various growth phases of microorganisms [109]
FTIR Chlamydomonas concordia (PLY 491), Chlamydomonas debaryana (CCAP 11/70), C. reinhardtii (CCAP 1132C), Chlorella luteoviridis (CCAP 211/3), Chlorella vulgaris (CCAP 211/79), Desmodesmus intermedius (CCAP 258/38), Dunaliella tertiolecta (PLY 83), Hindakia tetrachotoma (CCAP 222/81) and Parachlorella kessleri (CCAP 211/11G) and two marine C. concordia and D. teriolecta, Whole cells in 96-well silicon microplate Lipids FTIR data were exported in MATLAB and normalized using extended multiplicative scatter correction type two method (EMSC2) Ability of FTIR spectroscopy to effectively differentiate closely related eukaryotic microalgae grown under different environmental conditions [110]
FTIR Mucor circinelloides and Mortierella alpina Lipid extraction by Folch and Bligh & Lewis methods Evaluation and monitoring of lipid extraction efficiency Lipids were quantified by gravimetric analysis and FAME was quantified by GC FID Identify compounds (e.g., polyphosphates) that have negative effect on the lipid extraction process [107]
FTIR attenuated total reflectance Nannochloropsis sp. (CCAP 211/78) Freeze-dried biomass Biomass (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates) composition Conventional methods for the verification of FTIR data Monitor biochemical composition during typical growth experiments [111]
FTIR Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 Crude lipids extracted by Bligh & Dyer method TAGs   Transmittance spectra similar to triolein [74]