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Table 1 Summary of mechanochemically prepared catalysts for biomass conversion

From: Advances in mechanochemical processes for biomass valorization

Catalyst Preparation method Equipment Application Ref.
1%wt Fe (Co) /graphene oxide Ball milling graphene and FeCl2 · 4H2O (or Co(NO3)2 ∙ 6H2O) in a planetary ball mill for 10 min at 350 rpm.. Retsch-PM-100 planetary ball mill Production of vanillin from isoeugenol, a lignin-derived feedstock. [21]
Fe2O3 supported on Al-SBA-15 Al-SBA-15, Fe (NO3)3 · 9H2O and propionic acid were used as chemicals and were milled in a planetary ball mill at 350 rpm for 10 min. Finally, the material was calcined at 300 °C for 30 min. Retsch-PM-100 planetary ball mill Production of vanillin from vanillyl alcohol, a lignin-derived materials. [22]
Graphitic carbon nitride enriched with ZnO or Fe2O3 ZnO (or Fe2NO3) were supported on graphitic carbon nitride using a mechanical-assisted step in a planetary ball mill for 10 min at 350 rpm. Lastly, the materials were calcined at 300 °C for 3 h Retsch-PM-100 planetary ball mill Selective photo-oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. [23]
Co oxide nanoparticles supported on mesoporous material CoCl2 · 6H2O together with 2 g of support were milled at 350 rpm for 10 min in a planetary ball mill; then the materials obtained were calcined at 400 °C for 4 h. Retsch-PM-100 planetary ball mill Oxidation of benzyl alcohol and alkylation of toluene. [24]
CuAlZn–SBA and CuAl-SBA Ball milling solid support and CuCl2 • 2H2O in a planetary ball mill for 10 min at 350 rpm, followed by calcination at 400 °C for 4 h. Retsch-PM-100 planetary ball mill Microwave-assisted conversion of glucose to products with high added value. [25]