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Table 2 Summary of mechanochemically prepared biomass-template catalysts

From: Advances in mechanochemical processes for biomass valorization

Catalyst Biomass template Preparation method Equipment Application Ref.
Porous ZnO nanomaterials Polysaccharides Ball milling of zinc nitrate and polysaccharide at 350 rpm for 10 min, followed by calcination in air at 400 °C for 4 h. Retsch-PM-100 planetary ball mill Photocatalytic phenol degradation [41]
N-doped carbon Lignin Milling the carbonization of lignin, urea and potassium carbonate for 30 min; then carbonization at 800 °C. Fritsch Pulverisette 7 premium line planetary ball mill Cathode for lithium–sulfur batteries [36]
N-doped carbon Sawdust Sawdust melamine and/or urea and K2CO3 were milled for 30 min in a zirconia vessel. Then the obtained polymers were carbonized at 800 °C. Fritsch Pulverisette 7 premium line planetary ball mill Supercapacitors [37]