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Table 4 Summary of mechanochemically prepared bio-based catalysts for biomass conversion

From: Advances in mechanochemical processes for biomass valorization

Catalyst Biomass template Preparation method Equipment Application Ref.
Humin-based iron oxide catalysts Humins Ball milling of FeNO3 · 9H2O or FeCl2 · 4H2O with 4 g of humins for 45 min at 350 rpm. Materials were dried at 100 °C for 12 h and finally subjected to a calcination for 4 h at 400 °C. Retsch-PM-100 planetary ball mill Oxidation of isoeugenol to vanillin [48]
Polysaccharide-based niobium composites Polysaccharide Ball milling of ammonium niobate (V) oxalate hydrate and polysaccharide in a planetary ball for 30 min at 350 rpm; then ovendried at 100 °C for 24 h and calcination at 600 °C for 3 h. Retsch-PM-100 planetary ball mill Oxidation of isoeugenol to vanillin [49]