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Table 1 Proximate analysis of WW sludges reported in the experimental papers reviewed in this study. The values are converted into wt% on a dry basis

From: Resource recovery and waste-to-energy from wastewater sludge via thermochemical conversion technologies in support of circular economy: a comprehensive review

Study No.StudyFeed moisture input (mf) %AshFixed CarbonVolatile Matter
1Trinh et al. [39]7.3050.498.5240.99
2Fonts et al. [40]6.6044.226.4249.36
3Shen et al. [41]3.0022.6016.1061.30
4Alvarez et al. [42]5.6037.208.6054.20
5Chen et al. [43]6.5843.445.8450.72
6Chen et al. [44]84.0028.969.4161.63
7Freda et al. [45]3.5330.732.6766.59
8Lee et al. [46]6.3327.948.3263.75
9aFonts et al. [47]6.7042.776.8650.38
10Huang et al. [48]11.7927.8910.0062.11
11Xie et al. [49]4.5315.0116.4268.57
12Zhou et al. [50]17.500.3082.20
13Calvo et al. [51]7.9037.907.1055.10
14Qian et al. [52]87.0027.0021.9051.12
15Pedroza et al. [53]6.0040.532.1357.34