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Table 7 Raman spectroscopic methods

From: Lipids detection and quantification in oleaginous microorganisms: an overview of the current state of the art

Method Microorganisms Sample preparation Compound detection and quantification Correlation with method Excitation wavelegth (nm), resolution (cm−1) Reference
Raman micro-spectroscopy Haematococcus pluvialis mutant Culture cells were immobilized in agarose Total lipids, astaxanthin; Qualitative 532, n/a [141]
CRS Thalassiosira pseudonana Culture cells TAGs, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids; Quantitative GC 785, n/a [142]
NIR Raman spectroscopy Chlorella vulgaris Culture cells, fresh and lyophilized Total lipids; Quantitative 1064, n/a [140]
Raman micro-spectroscopy integrated with MS Euglena gracilis, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Culture cells Total lipids; Quantitative 532, n/a [148]
Single-cell Raman miscro-spectroscopy Fistulifera solaris Immobilized cells on agarose Unsaturation degree; Quantitative GC/MS 532, n/a [147]
Single-cell LTRS Botryococcus braunii, Neochloris oleoabundans, C. reinhardtii Culture cells Unsaturation degree; Quantitative 785, n/a [153]
CARS Phaenodactylum tricornutum Culture cells Lipids and unsaturation degree; Quantitative GC/MS 532, n/a [151]
Raman micro-spectroscopy 6 Mortierella species Culture cells Unsaturation degree; Quantitative GC 532, 8 [144]
Multiplex stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (SRS) B. braunii Culture cells Total lipids, pigments, proteins; Quantitative n/a, 33 [149]
Confocal Raman spectroscopy and microscopy Chlorella sorokiniana, N. oleoabundans Culture cells TAGs, carotenoids, chlorophyll; Qualitative 532, 2.4 [139]
Single-cell Raman spectroscopy Chlamydomonas sp. Culture cells Lipid/starch content; Quantitative GC/MS 532, 6 [101]
Single-cell Raman micro-spectroscopy Nannochloropsis oceanica Culture cells TAGs; Quantitative LC/MS 532, 2 [146]
Confocal Raman microscopy C. reinhardtii Culture cells Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids; Quantitative LC/MS 532, 3 [143]
CARS scattering microscopy Monoraphidium neglectum Culture cells Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition; Quantitative GC/MS, gravimetric n/a [152]
Raman micro-spectroscopy Botryococcus sudeticus, Chlamydomonas sp., Trachydiscus minutus Culture cells Unsaturation degree; Qualitative GC/MS 785, n/a [145]
Raman spectroscopy B. braunii Culture cells Lipids; Qualitative   [138]
CARS and spontaneous
Raman spectroscopy
Coccomyxa subellipsoidea Culture cells Lipids; Qualitative 514, n/a [150]