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Table 3 CO2 conversion methods with their possible intensification techniques

From: Process intensification technologies for CO2 capture and conversion – a review

ProcessDriving forceMain productsIntensification techniqueRef.
Photocatalytic reductionLightCH3OH, CO, CH4, H2• Photocatalyst modification[75]
• Monolith reactor[76]
• Micro-reactor[77]
Electrochemical reductionElectricityCH3OH, HCOOH• Microfluidic device[78]
• Coupling with photocatalysis[79]
• Gas diffuse electrode[80]
• Membrane reactor[81]
Thermochemical reductionHeatCO, H2,• Plasma[20]
• Reactive coupling 
• Membrane reactor[82]